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3DEP Manual


3DEP software (0.6 Gb)

3DEP Tutorial videos

1. Getting started
4. Loading the chip
2. Sample prep (part 1)
5. Running the 3DEP
3. Sample prep (part 2)
6. Analysing the results

Papers using the 3DEP

Description of the Technology

High-Throughput, Low-Loss, Low-Cost and Label-Free Cell Separation using Electrophysiology Activated Cell Enrichment. SA Faraghat, KF Hoettges, MK Steinbach, D van der Veen, WJ Brackenbury, EA Henslee, FH Labeed and MP Hughes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 2017 114 4591-4596

Ten–Second Electrophysiology: Evaluation of the 3DEP Platform for high-speed, high-accuracy cell analysis. KF Hoettges, EA Henslee, RM Torcal Serrano, RI Jabr, RG Abdallat, AD Beale, A Waheed, P Camelliti, CH Fry, DR van der Veen, FH Labeed, MP Hughes. Scientific Reports 2019 9 19153




Dielectrophoretic analysis of treated cancer cells for rapid assessment of treatment efficacy. S Mahabadi, FH Labeed, MP Hughes. Electrophoresis 2018 39 1104-1110

Human oral cancer cells with increasing tumorigenic abilities exhibit higher effective membrane capacitance. X Liang, KA Graham, AC Johannessen, DE Costea, FH Labeed. Integrative Biology 2014 6 545-554

A dielectrophoretic method of discrimination between normal oral epithelium, and oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a clinical setting. KA Graham, HJ Mulhall, FH Labeed, MP Lewis, KF Hoettges, N Kalavrezos, J McCaul, C Liew, S Porter, S Fedele, and MP Hughes. Analyst 2015 140 5198-5204

Epithelial cancer cells exhibit different electrical properties when cultured in 2D and 3D environments. HJ Mulhall, MP Hughes, B Kazmi, MP Lewis, FH Labeed. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2013 1830 5136-5141

Cancer, pre-cancer and normal oral cells distinguished by dielectrophoresis. HJ Mulhall, FH Labeed, B Kazmi, DE Costea, MP Hughes, MP Lewis. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2011 401 2455-2463



Red blood cells


Detecting Circadian Rhythms in Human Red Blood Cells by Dielectrophoresis. D Beale, FH Labeed, SJ Kitcatt, JS O’Neill. Methods in Molecular Biology 2022 2482 255-264.

Cytoplasmic anion/cation imbalances applied across the membrane capacitance may form a significant component of the resting membrane potential of red blood cells. MP Hughes, CH Fry, FH Labeed. Scientific Reports 2022 12 15005

Vm-related extracellular potentials observed in red blood cells. MP Hughes, EJ Kruchek, AD Beale, SJ Kitcatt, S Qureshi, ZP Trott, O Charbonnel, PA Agbaje, EA Henslee, RA Dorey, R Lewis, FH Labeed. Scientific Reports 2021 11 19446

78. Rapid, low-cost dielectrophoretic diagnosis of bladder cancer in a clinical setting. R Hoque, H Mostafid, MP Hughes. IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine 2020 8 4300405 (1-5)

Casein Kinase 1 underlies temperature compensation of circadian rhythms in human red blood cells. AD Beale, E Kruchek, SJ Kitcatt, EA Henslee, JSW Parry, G Braun, R Jabr, M von Schantz, JS O’Neill, FH Labeed. Journal of Biological Rhythms 2019 34 144-153

Rhythmic K+ transport regulates the circadian clock in human red blood cells. EA Henslee, P Crosby, SJ Kitcatt, JSW Parry, A Bernardini, RG Abdallat, G Braun, HO Fatoyinbo, EJ Harrison, KF Hoettges, AB Reddy, RS Edgar, RI Jabr, M von Schantz, JS O’Neill, FH Labeed. Nature Communications 2017 8 1978.





Transcriptome-based screening of ion channels and transporters in a migratory chondroprogenitor cell line isolated from late-stage osteoarthritic cartilage. C Matta, R Lewis, C Fellows, G Diszhazi, J Almassy, N Miosge, J Dixon, MC Uribe, S May, S Poliska, R Barrett-Jolley, E Henslee, FH Labeed, MP Hughes, A Mobasheri. Journal of Cellular Physiology 2021 236 7421-7439

Dielectrophoresis as a Tool to Reveal the Potential Role of Ion Channels and Early Electrophysiological Changes in Osteoarthritis. R Abdallat, EJ Kruchek, C Matta, R Lewis, FH Labeed. Micromachines 2021 12 949


Other cells

In Vitro characterization of murine pre-adipose nucleated cells reveals electrophysiological cycles associated with biological clocks. C Martin, JD Johnston, EA Henslee, DR can der Veen, FH Labeed. Electrophoresis 2022 43 1337-1346

The platelet electrome: evidence for a role in regulation of function and surface interaction . MP Hughes, EJ Kruchek, JM Gibbins, OV Griffiths, B Abdal, FH Labeed. Bioelectricity 2022 4 153-159

Characterization of human skeletal stem and bone cell populations using dielectrophoresis. A Ismail, MP Hughes, HJ Mulhall, ROC Oreffo, FH Labeed. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 2015 9 162-168

Cytoplasm resistivity of mammalian atrial myocardium determined by dielectrophoresis and impedance methods. CH Fry, SC Salvage, A Manazza, E Dupont, FH Labeed, MP Hughes, RI Jabr. Biophysical Journal 2012 103 2287-2294

Biophysical characteristics reveal neural stem cell differentiation potential. FH Labeed, JT Lu, HJ Mulhall, SA Marachenko, KF Hoettges, LC Estrada, AP Lee, MP Hughes, L Flanagan. PLoS One 2011 6e25458

Rapid determination of antibiotic resistance in E. coli using dielectrophoresis. K. F. Hoettges, J. W. Dale, M. P. Hughes. Physics in Medicine and Biology 2007 52 6001-6009 


Effects of cell detachment methods on the dielectric properties of adherent and suspension cells. S Mahabadi, FH Labeed, MP Hughes. Electrophoresis 2015 36 1493–1498

Accurate quantification of apoptosis progression and toxicity using a dielectrophoretic approach. EA Henslee, RM Torcal Serrano, FH Labeed, RI Jabr, CH Fry, MP Hughes and KF Hoettges. Analyst 2016 141 4608-4615

Apoptosis Progression Studied using Parallel Dielectrophoresis Electrophysiological Analysis and Flow Cytometry. HJ Mulhall, A Cardnell, KF Hoettges, FH Labeed and MP Hughes. Integrative Biology 2015 7 1396-1401

Real-time cell electrophysiology using a multi-channel dielectrophoretic-dot microelectrode array. HO Fatoyinbo, NA Kadri DH Gould, KF Hoettges, FH Labeed. Electrophoresis 2011 32 2541-2549

Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences drug sensitive and multidrug resistant leukaemic cells.  L Duncan, H Shelmerdine, Y. Hübner, HM Coley, MP Hughes, FH Labeed. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 2008 53 N1-N7


Non-biological particles


Rapid determination of nanowire electrical properties using a dielectrophoresis-well based system. M Constantinou, KF Hoettges, S Krylyuk, A Davydov, GP Rigas, MP Hughes, M Shkunov. Applied Physics Letters 2017 110 133103 (1-5)

Dielectrophoretic sample preparation for environmental monitoring of microorganisms: soil particle removal. HO Fatoyinbo, MC McDonnell, MP Hughes. Biomicrofluidics 2014 8 044115 (1-10)


Development of the DEP-Well


Efficient dielectrophoretic cell enrichment using a DEP-well based system. MA Abdul Razak, KF Hoettges, HO Fatoyinbo, FH Labeed, MP Hughes. Biomicrofluidics 2013 7, 064110 (1-10)

Rapid, automated measurement of dielectrophoretic forces using DEP-activated microwells. LM Broche, KF Hoettges, SL Ogin, GEN Kass, MP Hughes. Electrophoresis 2011 32 2393-2399


Dielectrophoresis-activated multiwell Plate for label-free high-throughput Drug Assessment. KF Hoettges Y Hübner, LM Broche, SL Ogin, GEN Kass, MP Hughes. Analytical Chemistry 2008 80 2063-2068


Parallel measurements of drug actions on Erythrocytes by dielectrophoresis, using a three-dimensional electrode design. Y Hübner, KF Hoettges, GEN Kass, SL Ogin, MP Hughes. IEE Proceedings on Bionanotechnology 2005 4 21-25


A high-throughput 3D composite dielectrophoretic separator. HO Fatoyinbo, D Kamchis, R Whattingham, SL Ogin, MP Hughes. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 2005 52 1347-1349

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