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Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) : a patient's guide

including Functional/Dissociative (non-epileptic) Seizures,  Functional Movement Disorder and other functional symptoms


How to use this website ...


Symptoms ...

DISCLAIMER:  Please do not attempt to diagnose yourself or others using this website. The diagnosis of functional and dissociative neurological symptoms can be difficult and depends on having experience and knowledge of different neurological problems.


The views of this website are those of the author alone and not those of NHS Lothian or the University of Edinburgh.

Downloads and Links ...

FUNDING:  I'm grateful to the Neurology Research Fund of the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh for funding this website. The cost for the website for the first two years was less than £200.  I'm especially grateful to Ian Laverty for raising money with this website in mind.

DUTCH Translation in progress by Prof Rien Vermeulen, Neurologist, Amsterdam and Jeannette Gelauff

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Neurosymptoms in other languages

I am very honoured that neurology, medical and nursing colleagues in a wide range of countries have contacted me to arrange a translation of in to other languages. Words and meanings change in different cultures and so it was important that these sites were adapted by professionals familiar with the topic. Some of these sites are complete. Others are in development

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Copyright and Terms and Conditions

All material on this site is copyright of Dr Jon Stone unless specifically stated otherwise. Please let me know if you want to borrow or reproduce any text from this site by emailing


I do not collect (and do not have the facility for collecting)  data from individuals who visit this site.


Like most website operators, and its translations collects non-personally-identifying information of the sort that web browsers and servers typically make available, such as the browser type, language preference, referring site, and the date and time of each visitor request. Our purpose in collecting non-personally identifying information is to better understand how  visitors use its website. From time to time, may release non-personally-identifying information in the aggregate, e.g., by publishing a report on trends in the usage of its website as an aggregated statistic


Also on the site

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Video clips relating to FND


Update December 2018

I have carried out an interim update of the site in December - to obtain a security certificate and move off the Adobe Flash platform. The site now runs in html5. Hope you like it it! Jon Stone


This website is about Functional Neurological Disorder (FND). This is when someone has:


• NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS (such as limb weakness, numbness, shaking or blackouts) which are

• REAL (and not imagined)

• and due to a PROBLEM with the FUNCTIONING of the nervous system

• not due to damage or structural disease of the nervous system

• causing difficulties for the person who experiences them


Some people have troublesome symptoms that they wish to understand without necessarily having a 'disorder' - these are called functional neurological symptoms, and this site is for you too.


FND and functional symptoms surprisingly common but can be difficult for patients and health professionals to understand.


This website, written by a neurologist with a special interest in these problems, aims to give you a better understanding of these symptoms. It has no advertising and is free. I hope you find it useful


Professor Jon Stone, Consultant Neurologist, Edinburgh

Jon Stone B&W
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Click on Links and Downloads tab on the menu above to access a wide range of leaflets, booklets and internet links

Functional Neurological Forum -

Functional Neurological forum launched in 2015 as an umbrella organisation for health professionals interested in functional neurological disorders and symptoms. This includes neurologists, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation physicians, speech and language therapists and patients interested in promoting awareness of FND


Anyone can join fnforum including patients but it is designed as a forum to bring together health professionals, inform them of conferences and other events. If you are looking for a patient forum see the links on the links page


Sign up at

Many excellent patient led organisations provide information and support for FND

Click here for more information

Most people with functional or dissociative neurological symptoms have a combination of symptoms like "weakness, numbness and fatigue" or "blackouts and sleep problems"


Click on a symptom on the right or use the menu above to explore the symptoms that are relevant to you.


Click on ‘Causes’ to discover what is known about....


•what is going wrong in the body when they do happen.(Mechanisms) and

•why people become vulnerable to these symptoms (Causes)

•     what is known about the accuracy of the diagnosis (Misdiagnosis)


Click on 'Not imagined’ for some answers to this issue


Click on ‘Treatment’ for discussion of what treatments may help


Click on 'Videos' or ‘Stories' for some real patient stories

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